Anirudh, R., Lohit, S., and Turaga, P. (2021). “Generative Patch Priors for Practical Compressive Image Recovery.” 2021 IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision. []

In this paper, we propose the generative patch prior (GPP) that defines a generative prior for compressive image recovery, based on patch-manifold models. Unlike learned, image-level priors that are restricted to the range space of a pre-trained generator, GPP can recover a wide variety of natural images using a pre-trained patch generator. Additionally, GPP retains the benefits of generative priors like high reconstruction quality at extremely low sensing rates, while also being much more generally applicable. We show that GPP outperforms several unsupervised and supervised techniques on three different sensing model—linear compressive sensing with known, and unknown calibration settings, and the non-linear phase retrieval problem. Finally, we propose an alternating optimization strategy using GPP for joint calibration-and-reconstruction which performs favorably against several baselines on a real world, un-calibrated compressive sensing dataset.

Shanthamallu, U. S., Thiagarajan, J. J., and Spanias, A. (2021). “Uncertainty-Matching Graph Neural Networks to Defend Against Poisoning Attacks.” 35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence. []

Graph Neural Networks (GNNs), a generalization of neural networks to graph-structured data, are often implemented using message passes between entities of a graph. While GNNs are effective for node classification, link prediction and graph classification, they are vulnerable to adversarial attacks, i.e., a small perturbation to the structure can lead to a non-trivial performance degradation. In this work, we propose Uncertainty Matching GNN (UM-GNN), that is aimed at improving the robustness of GNN models, particularly against poisoning attacks to the graph structure, by leveraging epistemic uncertainties from the message passing framework. More specifically, we propose to build a surrogate predictor that does not directly access the graph structure, but systematically extracts reliable knowledge from a standard GNN through a novel uncertainty-matching strategy. Interestingly, this uncoupling makes UM-GNN immune to evasion attacks by design, and achieves significantly improved robustness against poisoning attacks. Using empirical studies with standard benchmarks and a suite of global and target attacks, we demonstrate the effectiveness of UM-GNN, when compared to existing baselines including the state-of-the-art robust GCN.

Gokhale, T., Anirudh, R., Kailkhura, B., Thiagarajan, J. J., Baral, C., and Yang, Y. (2021). “Attribute-Guided Adversarial Training for Robustness to Natural Perturbations.” 35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence. []

While existing work in robust deep learning has focused on small pixel-level `p norm-based perturbations, this may not account for perturbations encountered in several real world settings. In many such cases although test data might not be available, broad specifications about the types of perturbations (such as an unknown degree of rotation) may be known. We consider a setup where robustness is expected over an unseen test domain that is not i.i.d. but deviates from the training domain. While this deviation may not be exactly known, its broad characterization is specified a priori, in terms of attributes. We propose an adversarial training approach which learns to generate new samples so as to maximize exposure of the classifier to the attributes-space, without having access to the data from the test domain. Our adversarial training solves a min-max optimization problem, with the inner maximization generating adversarial perturbations, and the outer minimization finding model parameters by optimizing the loss on adversarial perturbations generated from the inner maximization. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on three types of naturally occurring perturbations—object-related shifts, geometric transformations, and common image corruptions. Our approach enables deep neural networks to be robust against a wide range of naturally occurring perturbations. We demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach by showing the robustness gains of deep neural networks trained using our adversarial training on MNIST, CIFAR-10, and a new variant of the CLEVR dataset.

Thiagarajan, J. J., Narayanaswamy, V., Anirudh, R., Bremer, P.-T., Spanias, A. (2021). “Accurate and Robust Feature Importance Estimation under Distribution Shifts.” 35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence. []

With increasing reliance on the outcomes of black-box models in critical applications, post-hoc explainability tools that do not require access to the model internals are often used to enable humans understand and trust these models. In particular, we focus on the class of methods that can reveal the influence of input features on the predicted outputs. Despite their wide-spread adoption, existing methods are known to suffer from one or more of the following challenges: computational complexities, large uncertainties and most importantly, inability to handle real-world domain shifts. In this paper, we propose PRoFILE, a novel feature importance estimation method that addresses all these challenges. Through the use of a loss estimator jointly trained with the predictive model and a causal objective, PRoFILE can accurately estimate the feature importance scores even under complex distribution shifts, without any additional re-training. To this end, we also develop learning strategies for training the loss estimator, namely contrastive and dropout calibration, and find that it can effectively detect distribution shifts. Using empirical studies on several benchmark image and nonimage data, we show significant improvements over state-of-the-art approaches, both in terms of fidelity and robustness.